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 AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 10th ed. 2007.  Available online.

 This is a guide to the most frequently used reference types, based on the online AMA Manual of Style: A  Guide for Authors and Editors.  If you don't see an example for your type of reference, consult the manual.


The reference style followed by JAMA and its related journals was developed from recommendations contained in the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals  (formerly known as the Vancouver style) and the National Library of Medicine's recommendations found in Citing Medicine:The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers.

Please note:  Double-check any automatically generated citations for accuracy, such as from RefWorks, EndNote, CINAHL, etc.

AMA Style


These resources provide guidance on how to cite sources using American Medical Association (AMA) Style, 10th Ed., including examples for print and electronic sources.

Contributors: Ashley Velázquez
Last Edited: 2017-09-05 01:48:05

This resource discusses references page formatting for the American Medical Association (AMA) style sheet. AMA was developed by the American Medical Association for the purpose of writing medical research.

References are found at the end of a manuscript and are titled “Reference List”, and each item should be listed in numerical order (two references should not be combined under a single reference number) as opposed to alphabetically. Additionally, each item should be single-spaced.

Sample Reference

AuthorLastname, FirstInitial. Title in sentence case. Journal Title in Title Case. Year; Issue#: PP-PP.

When writing up your references list, be sure to always include the last name and the first and middle initial of the authors without punctuation. However, do use a comma to separate more than one author in a single bibliographic group (e.g., Wheeler T, Watkins PJ).

Use sentence case for all titles (capitalize only the first word of the title). Abbreviate and italicize names of journals according to the listing in the National Library of Medicine database. 

Additionally, each reference is divided with periods into bibliographic groups; each bibliographic group contains bibliographic elements, which may be separated using the following punctuation marks:

  • A comma: if the items are sub-elements of a bibliographic element or a set of closely related elements (e.g., the authors’ names).
  • A semicolon: if the elements in the bibliographic group are different (e.g., between the publisher’s name and the copyright year) or if there are multiple occurrences of logically related elements within a group; also, before volume identification data.
  • A colon: before the publisher’s name, between the title and the subtitle, and after a connective phrase (e.g., “In”, “Presented at”).

See the following examples:

1.  Wheeler T, Watkins PJ. Cardic denervation in diabetes. BMJ. 1973;4:584-586.

2. O'Keefe M, Coat S. Consulting parents on childhood obesity and implications for medical student learning. J Paediatr Child Health. 2009;45(10), 573-576.