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Xpdl Process Example Essay

The process essay, also well known as the "how-to" essay is commonly written for people or companies that need tutorials. Whether it's building a robot or cooking a chocolate cake, process essays use a similar format for any variation. They follow a step-by-step style, with the initial step influencing the second which influences the third and etc. Each step carries its own importance, and a poor explanation of one step can ruin the entire process. It's important to stay concise as well as efficient. However, before you begin writing your essay, do some small preparations.

Table Of Contents

Prepare The Small Stuff

  • Determine the Audience's Skill Level. It's important to center the complexity of the essay based on . For example, if you need to teach a friend or coworker how to do a simple fix or create a certain tool, then it would be intelligent to stick towards more basic terminology. However, if you are writing an essay for your astrophysics professor about the creation of a black hole in our planet, use more sophisticated and informative terminology.
  • Make a list of Materials. Obviously, the creation of anything comes with some . Whether it's items or ideas, the importance of having the necessities beforehand and ready to go is substantial. Make sure to place each item in accordance with its importance. The more impactful a part is, the higher up on the list it should be. However, each item should obviously be obtained.
  • Write out each task. In a step-by-step tutorial, each individual task carries some sort of weight. Since an entire process can not be complete if any step is skipped, it's crucial to . However, don't go overboard in your explanations. It's not necessary to bring the tutorial to a microscopic level, but each step should be understandable!

Sample Topics

  • The Full-Scale Production of a Movie.
  • From fresh and ready to a "burned out" student.
  • How things decay (Half-Life concept).
  • The development of a bad habit.
  • The process of building a business from scratch.

It's important to note that these essay topics are just some common examples used by several college students for their course papers. Feel free to use anyone you want or think of your own. Just make sure it's a PROCESS!


Process essay outline follows the standard procedure: Intro > Body Paragraphs > Conclusion.

Obviously, every process is different. Some can take a couple of minutes while others take months or maybe even years to complete. The length of the essay is generally based on the difficulty and number of steps it takes. However, the structure doesn't maneuver.


The first thing that you want to do as a writer is to interest the readers about your individual process. For somebody to be keen on approaching your process, they have to express interest in it. Though that generally goes without saying, many writers ignore this fact. Let's break it down into subsections:

  • Give a little bit of historical background. People often want to know the origins of whatever it is that they're working on. Introducing this part of the process helps to intrigue the reader, as well as give him a sense of purpose for the task.
  • Create an approximate timeframe. Unfortunately, your readers don't have all day to spend on this one event. As well as its purpose, people want to know how long the task will take. This way, they can decide how to break up the work. If it`s a quick fix, then they can knock it out in one session. However, if it's a large-scale operation, then the readers will obviously have to create their own time schedule.

Read more about how to write a great INTRODUCTION

Body Paragraphs

This is the point in the process essay where you start introducing the step-by-step process you need to take. A lot of the time, it helps to break down each process into subsections. For example, if a step has many moving parts, it would be smart to create its own paragraph just for that step. Remember, it's important to keep things smooth and efficient. Let's go into more detail about each step.

  • Each step should be carefully explained. Every step will vary in length.** Think about it: every instruction manual has several steps. Some are more difficult to comprehend or perform than others. For this reason, create your steps and explanations accordingly. You should be able to get a sense of their length and difficulty based on the explanation.
  • Don't forget to explain the purpose. People don't want orders barked at them aimlessly. Besides just accomplishing a task, people want to learn as they perform.
  • Why did they do this?
  • What was the purpose of this method?
  • Why did we do it this way and not this other way?
  • To make everything flow smoothly use transitions. Make the steps flow one after another to create a well-structured essay. As you introduce next step, consider using transition words like , , , , etc.

Showing the readers that they are learning and not just repeating is one of the most effective ways to lock down their attention and keep them coming back!


After going through every step meticulously and explaining the whole process, the essay needs a confident conclusion. This paragraph should be short, sweet, and to the point. It's main goal is to :

  • Talk about the main result. After the readers have completed the process, they should be left with a final result. It's important that you .
  • Think about it like this. After completing a task, you obviously would like to know its overall purpose. When the reader feels that he accomplished a challenge, learned something from it and has a path to take the result towards, he will be satisfied!
  • Restatement as well as Overall Conclusion. To put a pretty tie around the process essay means that you need to neatly wrap things up! Restate some of the highlightable points as well as the key overall purpose. Make sure that the reader feels after going through your process, and strengthen the necessity of the purpose with a nice concluding sentence!

Post-Writing Tips

  • Make sure it's simple enough to follow: The worst-case-scenario an author can create is a feeling of absolute confusion in the readers mind.To avoid this problem, always keep in mind that your readers can be beginners. Because of that don’t try to impress them with complicated words or sentences, use simple language to provide clear directions on how to do something. Give as much details as possible, but do it plainly.
  • "Why is he making me do this?"
  • "What was the purpose of this?"
  • "I don't understand this step at all!"
  • If the reader is asking himself these questions, then it's time to do some editing!
  • Experiment and try it for yourself, or ask a friend. There's no better way to experience success then actively attempt through your own instructions. If everything truly makes sense, then you should have no problem solving the task through your own words. Even better, ask a peer to try it through your words to get an outside point of view.


Essay Writing Advice From Our Professional Team

Tutor Joseph, EssayPro

When you enter your first writing course, it is likely that your first assignment is a process essay. A composition like this should help you get a grip of an essay structure and progression. A process paper is a useful piece of work, as when the reader of your paper finishes reading it, they know something new! My only tip for you writing this essay is not to overwhelm your reader with directions. Be clear on every single point that you make. Another piece of advice I can give you is to watch out for boring connectors. If you begin each sentence with “and then” your reader will get bored and possibly confused. While writing, you can use the “and then” connectors, but then go back and edit them out. Your essay will sound a lot cleaner and be less repetitive. You might also be tempted to say “first” and “second”, but don’t do it. Let the language do the work for you.

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The XML Process Definition Language (XPDL) is a format standardized by the Workflow Management Coalition (WfMC) to interchange business process definitions between different workflow products, i.e. between different modeling tools and management suites. XPDL defines an XML schema for specifying the declarative part of workflow / business process.

XPDL is designed to exchange the process definition, both the graphics and the semantics of a workflow business process. XPDL is currently the best file format for exchange of BPMN diagrams; it has been designed specifically to store all aspects of a BPMN diagram. XPDL contains elements to hold graphical information, such as the X and Y position of the nodes, as well as executable aspects which would be used to run a process. This distinguishes XPDL from BPEL which focuses exclusively on the executable aspects of the process. BPEL does not contain elements to represent the graphical aspects of a process diagram.

It is possible to say that XPDL is the XMLSerialization of BPMN.


The Workflow Management Coalition, founded in August 1993, began by defining the Workflow Reference Model (ultimately published in 1995) that outlined the five key interfaces that a workflow management system must have. Interface 1 was for defining the business process, which includes two aspects: a process definition expression language and a programmatic interface to transfer the process definition to/from the workflow management system.

The first revision of a process definition expression language was called Workflow Process Definition Language (WPDL) which was published in 1998. This process meta-model contained all the key concepts required to support workflow automation expressed using URL Encoding. Interoperability demonstrations were held to confirm the usefulness of this language as a way to communicate process models.

By 1998, the first standards based on XML began to appear. The Workflow Management Coalition Working Group 1 produced an updated process definition expression language called XML Process Definition Language (XPDL) now known as XPDL 1.0. This second revision was an XML based interchange language that contained many of the same concepts as WPDL, with some improvements. XPDL 1.0 was ratified by the WfMC in 2002, and was subsequently implemented by more than two dozen workflow/BPM products to exchange process definitions. There was a large number of research projects and academic studies on workflow capabilities around XPDL, which was essentially the only standard language at the time for interchange of process design.

The WfMC continued to update and improve the process definition interchange language. In 2004 the WfMC endorsed BPMN, a graphical formalism to standardize the way that process definitions were visualized. XPDL was extended specifically with the goal of representing in XML all the concepts present in a BPMN diagram. This third revision of a process definition expression language is known as XPDL 2.0 and was ratified by the WfMC in October 2005.

In April 2008, the WfMC ratified XPDL 2.1 as the fourth revision of this specification. XPDL 2.1 includes extension to handle new BPMN 1.1 constructs, as well as clarification of conformance criteria for implementations.

In spring 2012, the WfMC completed XPDL 2.2 as the fifth revision of this specification. XPDL 2.2 builds on version 2.1 by introducing support for the process modeling extensions added to BPMN 2.0.

Tools using XPDL notation[edit]


  • Wil M.P. van der Aalst, "Business Process Management Demystified: A Tutorial on Models, Systems and Standards for Workflow Management", Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol 3098/2004.
  • Wil M.P. van der Aalst, "Patterns and XPDL: A Critical Evaluation of the XML Process Definition Language", Eindhoven University of Technology, PDF.
  • Jiang Ping, Q. Mair, J. Newman, "Using UML to design distributed collaborative workflows: from UML to XPDL", Twelfth IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises, 2003. WET ICE 2003. Proceedings, ISBN 0-7695-1963-6.
  • W.M.P. van der Aalst, "Don't go with the flow: Web services composition standards exposed", IEEE Intelligent Systems, Jan/Feb 2003.
  • Jürgen Jung, "Mapping Business Process Models to Workflow Schemata An Example Using Memo-ORGML And XPDL", Universität Koblenz-Landau, April 2004, PDF.
  • Volker Gruhn, Ralf Laue, "Using Timed Model Checking for Verifying Workflows", José Cordeiro and Joaquim Filipe (Eds.): Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Computer Supported Activity Coordination, Miami, USA, 23.05.2005 - 24.05.2005, 75-88. INSTICC Press ISBN 972-8865-26-0.
  • Nicolas Guelfi, Amel Mammar, "A formal framework to generate XPDL specifications from UML activity diagrams", Proceedings of the 2006 ACM symposium on Applied computing, 2006.
  • Peter Hrastnik, "Execution of business processes based on web services", International Journal of Electronic Business, Volume 2, Number 5 / 2004.
  • Petr Matousek, "An ASM Specication of the XPDL Language Semantics", Symposium on the Effectiveness of Logic in Computer Science, March 2002, PS.
  • F. Puente, A. Rivero, J.D. Sandoval, P. Hernández, and C.J. Molina, "Improved Workflow Management System based on XPDL", Editor(s): M. Boumedine, S. Ranka, Proceedings of the IASTED Conference on Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering, St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, November 29-December 1, 2006, ISBN 0-88986-433-0.
  • Petr Matousek, "Verification method proposal for business processes and workflows specified using the XPDL standard language", PhD thesis, Jan 2003.
  • Albert Rainer (2004). "Web-centric business process modelling". International Journal of Electronic Business. 2 (5). 
  • Y Xiao; D Chen; M Chen (2004). "2004 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (IEEE Cat. No.04CH37583)". Proc. 2004 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics. 3: Pages 2137–2142. doi:10.1109/ICSMC.2004.1400643. ISBN 0-7803-8566-7. 
  • Stefan Jablonski (2005). "Processes, Workflows, Web Service Flows: A Reconstruction". Data management in a connected world: essays dedicated to Hartmut Wedekind on the occasion of his 70th Birthday (Lecture Notes in Computer Science). Berlin: Springer. doi:10.1007/11499923_11. ISBN 3-540-26295-4. 
  • Thomas Hornung, Agnes Koschmider, Jan Mendling, "Integration of Heterogeneous BPM Schemas: The Case of XPDL and BPEL", Technical Report JM-2005-03, Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, 2006 PDF.
  • Wei Ge, Baoyan Song, Derong Shen, Ge Yu, "e_SWDL: An XML Based Workflow Definition Language for Complicated Applications in Web Environments" Web Technologies and Applications: 5th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb 2003, Xian, China, April 23–25, 2003. Proceedings, ISSN 0302-9743.
  • Ryan K. L. Ko, Stephen S. G. Lee, Eng Wah Lee (2009) Business Process Management (BPM) Standards: A Survey. In: Business Process Management Journal, Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Volume 15 Issue 5. ISSN 1463-7154. PDF
  • Huser, V.; Rasmussen, L. V.; Oberg, R.; Starren, J. B. (2011). "Implementation of workflow engine technology to deliver basic clinical decision support functionality" (using XPDL as the process representation language). BMC Medical Research Methodology 11: 43. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-11-43. PMC3079703. PMID 21477364.
  • Huser, V.; Narus, S. P.; Rocha, R. A. (2010). "Evaluation of a flowchart-based EHR query system: A case study of RetroGuide". Journal of Biomedical Informatics 43 (1): 41-50. doi:10.1016/j.jbi.2009.06.001. PMC2840619. PMID 19560553


See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Process represented in XPDL (healthcare domain example, Hepatitis A immunization)[1]
XPDL flowchart example (medical process)